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十二生肖
定价:128  策划:旅 舜 出版:研究出版社

图书在版编目(CIP)数据

十二生肖:汉英对照 / 旅舜主编. —北京:研究出版社,2009.3

ISBN 978-7-80168-461-5

Ⅰ. 十…

Ⅱ. 旅…

Ⅲ. 十二生肖—通俗读物—汉、英

Ⅳ. K892.21-49

中国版本图书馆CIP数据核字(2009)第 028593号

The shengxiao, or animals of the Chinese zodiac, forms a method of numbering the years based on the names of 12 different animals. In sequential order, these animals are the rat, ox, tiger, rabbit, dragon, snake, horse, sheep, monkey, rooster, dog, and pig.

 

For over three millennia, China has followed the lunar calendar to record time. To count the years, the lunar calendar uses the 10 Heavenly Stems (jia, yi, bing, ding, wu, ji, geng, xin, ren, and gui) and the 12 Earthly Branches (zi, chou, yin, mao, chen, si, wu, wei, shen, you, xu, hai). Each person is assigned one of the 12 animals to correspond with, and represent, the Earthly Branch of the year in which he or she was born. The 12 animals of the Chinese zodiac thus are used to number the years, record and measure time, and determine each person’s zodiac sign.

 

An essential and deep-rooted part of China’s traditional culture, the shengxiao has had a profound impact on Chinese people. The shengxiao culture permeates every aspect of Chinese social life and is intimately connected with the lives of the Chinese people. The zodiac animals are used to inquire about the age of others, and shengxiao-related folktales, customs and even games can be found throughout China. The Chinese zodiac animals also play a prominent role in fortune-telling, and are beautifully illustrated and depicted in works of art and literature. The shengxiao has even come to assume a mystical quality. For instance, before a man and woman are married, it is important to first ensure that there is no conflict between their respective zodiac signs. Similarly, when choosing a name, it is also vital to avoid any names that would clash or conflict with the person’s zodiac animal. During their time on earth, ancient emperors and the wealthy would use shengxiao-illustrated folding screens, precious mirrors, and coins to seek good fortune, and wear zodiac amulets to pray for their well-being. After they passed away, zodiac animal figurines would be sculpted and shengxiao frescos would be drawn to accompany them to the afterworld.

 

The Chinese zodiac and the culture related to it have circulated throughout Chinese society for a very long time. While it is difficult to determine the shengxiao’s precise origins, early records related to the zodiac animals are found in the Classic of Poetry. China’s first anthology of poems, the Classic of Poetry comprises some 500 years of poems and songs from the early Western Zhou Dynasty (1046-771 BC) to the mid-Spring and Autumn Period (770-476 BC). In 1975, a set of Qin Dynasty bamboo slips was excavated in Shuihudi of Yunmeng County, Hubei Province. The contents included legal and administrative documents as well as the Book of Days, and also dealt with the politics, economy, culture, military affairs and other aspects of social life at that time. One of the essays, entitled The Robber, describes the match between a thief’s facial features and his zodiac sign. This archaeological discovery further confirmed that the 12 zodiac animals existed as early as the Spring and Autumn Period (770-476 BC). The famous work Critical Essays, by materialist philosopher Wang Chong of the Eastern Han Dynasty (25-220), is the most comprehensive document dealing with the 12 zodiac animals discovered to date; the zodiac animals mentioned in the book are identical to the 12 popular zodiac animals in China today.

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