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颐和园长廊彩画故事
定价:98  策划:旅 舜 出版:五洲传播出版社

 

《颐和园长廊彩画故事》

Stories Behind the Long Corridor Paintings in the Summer Palace

 

    颐和园位于北京市西北郊,是中国著名的古典皇家园林,总面积达290多万平方米,主要由万寿山和昆明湖组成。

    颐和园的前身为金代行宫。清乾隆十五年(1750年),乾隆皇帝在此大兴土木,修建清漪园,前后用时15年。完工后的清漪园不仅继承了中国北方园林的恢宏大气,又兼具江南园林的秀美多姿,更将京城西北郊的皇家园林连接成片,构成一组完整的园林体系。咸丰十年(1860年),英法联军攻入北京,清漪园内木结构建筑均被付之一炬。光绪十一年(1885年),垂帘听政的慈禧太后,挪用海军经费开始动工修复清漪园,并将其改名为“颐和园”。

    1900年,颐和园再次遭到八国联军的破坏和洗劫。后因清廷没落,慈禧只是对前山和园内东部进行了再次修缮。1924年,颐和园被辟为公园。新中国成立后,政府多次拨款修葺,再现了这座皇家园林辉煌的景观布局。1998年,颐和园被联合国教科文组织列入《世界遗产名录》。

    颐和园是北京现存规模最大,保存最完整的清代园林。昆明湖水域辽阔,约占全园面积的四分之三;万寿山上层层叠间了以佛香阁为主的重重高大雄伟的建筑,构成全园景观的中心。万寿山南麓的建筑因地构筑,设计巧妙。一条长廊沿岸而设,与佛香阁建筑群垂直相交。

    长廊东起邀月门,西止石丈亭,全长728米,共273间。长廊以排云门为中心,左右对称,布局严谨,两侧建有四座亭重檐八角和两座水榭。四座亭子,自东而西依次为“留佳”、“寄澜”、“秋水”、“清遥”,象征一年四季。

    长廊形式独特,布局完整,将以仁寿殿为代表的政治活动区、以乐寿堂、玉澜堂等庭院为代表的生活区和以长廊沿线、后山、西区组成的苑园游览区三个区域联为一体;长廊建筑构思巧妙,它将以万寿山为中心的山景和以昆明湖为中心的水景相隔,而漫步长廊时,游人既能北眺万寿山,又能南望昆明湖,长廊又将山与水无形地连为一个整体。除了连接景点,引导行人的旅游路线之外,长廊还为游人遮风避雨、抵骄阳挡暴雪,即使在恶劣的天气下,游人依然可以绕亭而坐,歇息之时,又可以仰望、欣赏廊上幅幅精美的彩画。

    长廊蜿蜒曲折,移步换景,每根梁枋上都绘有精美的彩画。长廊彩绘属于“苏式彩画”,是中国木结构建筑上的装饰艺术。它的特点是主要画面被括在大半圆的括线内(称为“包袱”)。由于建筑形式不同,画师在颐和园长廊四周的梁枋等处绘制了大小不同、题材广泛、形式多样的14000多幅彩画,主要有花木虫鸟,人物故事,山水风景等。其中,最引人入胜的是人物故事彩画,故事大多出自中国古典文学名著《红楼梦》、《西游记》、《三国演义》、《水浒传》、《封神演义》、《聊斋志异》等。彩画上没有任何文字说明,人们只能依据画上人物的容貌神情、衣着装扮、动作造型和场景等猜测故事的内容。无论是人物画,还是花鸟画,都有深刻的寓意。1990年,长廊以建筑形式独特、绘画丰富精美,被评为世界上最长的画廊,被载入“吉尼斯世界大全”。

The Summer Palace, a famous classic royal garden in China, is located in a northwest suburbs of Beijing, China. Covering an area of more than 290 hectares, it is made up of two major sections: the Longevity Hill and Kunming Lake.

The origin of the Palace is something of a Xanadu from the Jin Dynasty (1115-1234). In 1750, Emperor Qianlong in the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) started a huge project, Qingyi Garden, in this area, which took 15 years to complete. The garden not only inherited the mighty style of the northern Chinese garden, but also absorbed the delicate beauty of the southern Chinese garden; moreover, it connected all the royal gardens in the northwest suburbs of Beijing, which constituted a series of garden complex. In the 10th year of Emperor Xianfeng's reign (1860), the British and French troops seized Beijing; Qingyi Garden was looted by the foreign troops, and all of its wooden architecture was burnt to the ground. In the 11th year of Emperor Guangxu's reign (1885), Empress Dowager Cixi, who was actually running the country, re-allocated funds meant for the country's marine force to restore Qingyi Garden, and then renamed it the Summer Palace.

In 1900, the Summer Palace was again looted and destroyed by foreign invaders consisting of troops from eight countries. The Qing court, by this time, reduced to such financial shortage that it was unable to allocate any money for restoration. In 1902, Cixi had only the front of Longevity Hill and the eastern part of the Summer Palace rebuilt. In 1924, the Summer Palace was opened to public as a park. Since the founding of the People’s Republic of China, the government has repaired it many times, eventually restoring the general landscape of this grand royal garden. In 1998, the Summer Palace was listed by UNESCO on the list of World Heritage Sites.

The Summer Palace is, by far, the largest and most complete garden preserved from the Qing Dynasty.The broad Kunming Lake occupies threequaters of the entire imperial garden. With its unique structure, ingenious layout, towering terrace and convincing grandeur, the Buddhist Incense Tower was artfully set out by the imperial garden and beautiful scenery surrounding it, making it the very center of the whole garden. The structures on the southern side of the Longevity Hill are wonderfully designed according to the topography. They are connected by a long corridor, which vertically converges with the complex of the Buddhist Incense Tower.

The long corridor, 728-meter long, stretches from the Yaoyue Gate (Gate of Inviting the Moon) to the Shizhang Pavilion (Stone-old-man Pavilion), and is divided into 273 sections. The Paiyuan Gate (Gate of Dispelling Clouds) is its center; the symmetrical beauty of the entire corridor is delicately designed. Around the Gate of Dispelling Clouds, there are four pavilions and two waterside pavilions, and each of the four pavilions is decorated with multiple eaves and eight roof angles. From the east to the west, the four pavilions are named “Liu Jia (Mesmerizing Scenery)”, “Ji Lan (Harmonizing with the Lake)”, “Qiu Shui (Autumn Water)”, and “Qing Yao (Clear and Carefree)”, respectively, which symbolize the four seasons of a year.

The unique artistic corridor is almost perfect in design. It links the political business area which features the Hall of Benevolence and Longevity, the living area featuring the Hall of Happiness and Longevity and the Hall of Jade Ripples, as well as the garden area highlighted by the various landscapes running along the corridor, mountainous area, and the western area, and gives the entire Summer Palace a sense of unity. Its location is also appreciative; it serves as a division between the mountainous landscape centered around the Longevity Hill and the water settings centered around the Kunming Lake; tourists can appreciate the entirety of the Longevity Hill and Kunming Lake at the same time while strolling in the corridor; thus, it also acts as an medium between the mountain and water. In addition to linking the different scenic spots and setting a reasonable traveling route for the tourists, the corridor also functions as a shelter so tourists can avoid the harsh wind, rain, scorching sunlight, and severe snow; when the weather suddenly becomes unfavorable, tourists can sit in the corridor and take a rest, and during the time, the paintings on its balks become another wonderful sort of appreciative scenery.

The long corridor is meandering, and the views inside change as the viewer’s vantage point shifts. On each of its balks, there are exquisite colorful paintings. They embody the wonderful decorative art of Chinese wooden buildings, whose genre belongs to the colorful Suzhou-styled painting school. The main feature of which is that each of these paintings is painted within a large semicircle wrapper. Artists have painted more than 14,000 paintings of different sizes, relevance and patterns on the balks of the corridor according to the shapes of the relevant architectural parts. These paintings feature flowers, birds, insects, plants, legendary or historic stories, as well as landscapes, among which the most outstanding are the figural stories; those stories mostly originate from Chinese classic fiction, such as A Dream of Red Mansions, Pilgrimage to the West, The Romance of the Three Kingdoms, Outlaws of the Marsh, The Creation of the Gods, and Strange Tales from Make-Do Studio. Since there are no literary illustrations available, visitors have to guess the content of the painted stories according to the appearance, countenance, dressing and postures of the painted figures and the backgrounds. -In fact, each of those paintings, whether about humans or about flowers and birds, carries profound cultural significance. In 1990, the corridor was ranked as the longest gallery in the world, as listed in the Guinness Book of World Records, for its unique artistic pattern, exquisite style and rich content.

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